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What is an expert system? Application, Characteristics and need of Expert System.

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What is an expert system? Application, Characteristics and need of Expert System.
What is an expert system? Application, Characteristics and need of Expert System.

What is an expert system? Application, Characteristics and need of Expert System.

Expert System

 
Expert Systems are computer programs that are derived from a branch of computer science research called Artificial Intelligence (AI). Expert System is an information system that is capable of mimicking human thinking and making considerations during the process of decision-making.
 
AI programs that achieve expert-level competence in solving problems in task areas by bringing to bear a body of knowledge about specific tasks are called Expert Systems.
 
An expert system refers to a computer system which exhibits the human expert’s intelligence. An expert system handles real-world problems requiring the expert’s involvement, uses a computer model of expert knowledge and expert reasoning.
 
Prof. Edward from Stanford University, a famous researcher on ES defines ES as:
 
“… an intelligent computer programme that uses knowledge and reasoning procedures to solve different problems that need certain expertise to solve the problems.”
 
Expert system is developed to model the ability of an expertise in solving problems. Expert system must be able to provide users with the services and facilities that an expert can usually provide..
 
Thus expert systems are computer programs which store the factual and inferential knowledge of human experts in a narrow domain. An expert system is an program which uses knowledge to solve problems which would normally require a human expert. It attempts to reproduce the performance of one or more human experts.
 
Application of Expert Systems
 
The range of applications of expert systems is very vast. It includes areas such as:
 
1. Medical Diagnosis
 
2. Prediction
 
3. Accounting and Finance
 
4. Designing
 
5. Planning
 
6. Debugging 7. Scheduling
 
8. Assessment
 
9. Marketing
 
10. Manufacturing
 
11. Monitoring and Control
 
12. Training
 
1. Medical Diagnosis
 
Different types of medical diagnostic packages are used for different types of medical diagnoses. These determine the cause of malfunctions in complex situations based on observable symptoms.
 
e.g. MYCIN – used to diagnose infectious blood diseases.
 
HELP – used to diagnose heart problems.
 
PUFF-measures lung functions.
 
 
2. Prediction
 
Another application of expert system is to predict probable consequences of a given situation.
For example, forecasting crop damage etc.
 
3. Accounting and Finance
 
In the field of accounting and finance the expert system helps to provide tax advice, to select forecasting models, to credit authorization decisions etc.
 
4. Designing
 
Expert system proves to be very useful for determining the configuration of system components to meet the given specification.
 
e.g. The design of VLSI system. Thus the system helps to prepare design of the plan and even recalculate before actually manufacturing the object.
 
5. Planning
 
Expert systems are:
 
1. Helpful in a number of applications related to space planning and explorations.
 
2. Helps in planning curricula for students.
 
3. Useful in planning educational experiments in biology, chemistry and molecular genetics etc.
 
6. Debugging
 
Debugging is another beneficial application of expert system. It involves prescribing and implementing remedies for malfunctions.
For example, location of faults in computer or communication system.
 
7. Scheduling
 
Expert system aids in scheduling of:
 
1. Customer orders.
 
2. Computer resources for operating systems.
 
3. Production operations.
 
4. Various manufacturing tasks.
 
8. Assessment
 
Assessment is very important for effective decisions. The assessment of geological structures can be made with the usage of expert system.
 
On the basis of an area’s geological formation an expert system gives possible location of minerals etc.
 
e.g. Geology packages like PROSPECTOR.
 
Also applicable in numerous military applications like battlefield assessment etc.
 
9. Marketing
 
Expert system is used in the field of marketing in:
 
1. Establishing sales quotas.
 
2. Responding to customer inquiries.
 
3. Determining rebate policies.
 
10. Manufacturing
 
Expert system is effectively used in manufacturing.
 
It helps in:
 
1. Determining correct running of a process.
 
2. Analyzing quality.
 
3. Providing corrective actions.
 
4. Product designing and layout etc.
 
11. Monitoring and Control
 
Expert systems can be used to monitor the processors, activities of employees, cash management etc.
 
These help in achieving control even without the expert being present. Useful in governing the behaviour of acomplex environment.
 
12. Training
 
Expert system is highly useful in educating trainees. Many expert systems describe the logic used for a particular problem – training the user the way, the system
reaches decision.
 
 
Characteristics of an Expert System
 
Features or characteristics of an expert system can be listed as:
 
1. An expert system should solve difficult problems in a domain as good as or better than human experts. This is a fundamental criterion.
 
2. Expert system should be easy to correct errors or to add new information.
 
 
3. An expert system should serve an expert as consultant when providing solution to the user’s problems.
 
4.The expert system should be educational whenever appropriate. They act as an information generator for different types of problems to those who want
information on these problems.
 
5. Expert system should display its intelligent behaviour. An expert system must function and interact in a very reasonable period of time with the user. The
total time must be less than the time taken by an expert to solve the same problem.
 
6. It allows integration from different sources.
 
7. The expert system should be capable of explaining how a particular conclusion was reached and why requested information is needed during
consultation.
 
8. An expert system should be easy to use.
 
9. The response time of an ES should be adequate.Artificial Intelligence
 
10. An ES reduces the cost of accessing information.
 
11. The expert system should be able to explain its advice. Explanation facilities
credibility of the system.
 
 
12.The expert system must be reliable and it must be improbable for the system to make a mistake.
 
13. Due to the large amount of knowledge possessed by an ES, it is important for the ES to have an efficient mechanism to administer the compilation of the
existing knowledge in it.
 
Need of Expert System
 
An expert system can help to meet various needs like:
 
1. New approaches to business organisation.
 
2. Knowledge
 
3. Expertise
 
4. Competence
 
5. Small automated equipment
 
The expertise of experienced specialists is preserved. If an expert retires, dies or resigns, the organisation may loose his expertise. But with an expert system, there are no chances of such loss. Expert systems act as an intelligent assistant to human experts.
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